Renal Artery Stenting

There are two renal arteries that supply blood from the heart to the kidneys, one to each kidney. Narrowing of these arteries is called renal artery stenosis.

 

Why do the renal arteries become stenosed (narrowed)? 

  • Genetic reasons

  • Acquired causes like inflammatory diseases Takayasu disease: a form of vasculitis, i.e inflammation of the blood vessels, which produces significant changes in the structure of the blood vessels, either dilating them to form aneurysms or constricting them to form narrowing in the region 

 

What are the effects of Stenosis?

  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)

  • Decreased flow to the regions affected and subsequent changes

 

Features of Renal Artery Stenosis: 

  • Can be on one side or on both

  • Can lead to high blood pressure that is particularly difficult to treat and renal failure if on both sides

  • Diagnosed by ultrasound and Doppler investigations and by additional imaging in the form of CT or MR angiograms 

 

How can it be managed or treated?

  • It may be possible to treat the condition in the cardiac catheterization lab through balloon dilation (angioplasty) with or without placement of a stent.

  • Special precautions are needed for medical management of high blood pressure. Some medications can result in kidney failure and careful consideration is needed in the choice of medications

 

Complications and long term results:

  • Complications include injury to the vessel at the balloon dilation site that may lead to complete occlusion (blockage) of the renal artery.

  • The hypertension may not be relieved in some cases.